Stochastic Unit Commitment in Low-Inertia Grids

Abstract

In this paper, the Unit Commitment (UC) problem in a power network with low levels of rotational inertia is studied. Frequency-related constraints, namely the limitation on Rate-of-Change-of-Frequency (RoCoF), frequency nadir and steady-state frequency error, are derived from a uniform system frequency response model that incorporates dynamics and controls of both synchronous generators and grid-forming inverters. These constraints are then included into a stochastic UC formulation that accounts for wind power and equipment contingency uncertainties using a scenario-tree approach. In contrast to the linear RoCoF and steady-state frequency error constraints, the nadir constraint is highly nonlinear. To preserve the mixed-integer linear formulation of the stochastic UC model, we propose a computationally efficient approach that allows to recast the nadir constraint by introducing appropriate bounds on relevant decision variables of the UC model. This method is shown to be generally more accurate and computationally more efficient for medium-sized networks than a piece-wise linearization method adapted from the literature. Simulation results for a modified IEEE RTS-96 system revealed that the inclusion of inertia-related constraints significantly influences the UC decisions and increases total costs, as more synchronous machines are forced to be online to provide inertial response.

Publication
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems

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