MPC-Based Fast Frequency Control of Voltage Source Converters in Low-Inertia Power Systems


A rapid deployment of renewable generation has led to significant reduction in the rotational system inertia and damping, thus making frequency control in power systems more challenging. This paper proposes a novel control scheme based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) for converter-interfaced generators operating in a grid-forming mode, with the goal of exploiting their fast response capabilities to provide fast frequency control service to the system. The controller manipulates converter power injections to limit the frequency nadir and rate-of-change-of frequency after a disturbance. Both centralized and decentralized MPC approaches are considered and compared in terms of performance and practical implementation. Special attention is given to the decentralized controller by generating an explicit MPC solution to enhance computational efficiency and reduce hardware requirements. Simulation results obtained from a high fidelity DAE model of the IEEE 39-bus system demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes.

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems